The Problem of Work and the Rise of the Precariat
Work, as a life experience, has evolved greatly over historical time. For most ordinary people, their job is not something that they enjoy much. However, without formal work many lose focus, may become dependent on welfare, and certainly become socially stigmatized. It seems that increasing numbers of people will never be able to have secure employment. They have joined a new social class now called the precariat. What are the consequences of that? How have we reached this point? What is a practical, long term solution to “the problem of work” for ordinary people?
Preface: This is a discussion paper, not a researched academic document. The reading list at the end is mostly a collection of contemporary links from the Internet and pretty accidental, not edited for quality. Where a topic is of broad general interest comes up with friends, I have adopted the practice of posting discussion starters like the present one on Academia.edu in the hope that others might also find them worth thinking about. The perspective in this article is mostly Australian, but the implications are global.
What is "the problem of work"?
1) "Work" is a term with meanings and associations which differ amongst individuals, families, cultures, and over periods of history. Therefore any discussion about work can easily be at cross purposes, or fall into narrow topics which miss larger consequences.
2) These notes will pay a good deal of attention to the big picture historical changes which have occurred in employment. One reason for this focus is that wrenching changes in the nature of employment are occurring once again world-wide, though most individuals have only a partial and local understanding of this process. A second reason is that big changes in the nature and availability of work strongly affect what happens with the daily experience of individuals in their workplaces, although again most will only understand that experience as being particular to their workplace.
3) In urban societies as we know them, the mechanisms for allocating people to occupations, or allowing them to choose are very complex, and have evolved over the last two centuries.
a) The broad patterns are strongly influenced by types of economic systems - various versions of capitalism, socialism, command economies (communism, dictatorships), and so on.
b) Shifting patterns of global manufacture, services, trade and technology are other major factors.
c) The presence or absence of organized labour unions, and associations for employer collusion, greatly affect the relationships between employed labour and employers.
d) The role and effectiveness of legal frameworks within which employment occurs critically governs outcomes.
e) The commitment and enthusiasm with which work itself is done partly depends upon all of the preceding factors, but also turns upon cultural habits and expectations. The general experience of workplaces is apt to be quite different in, say, Australia, Japan, Italy, Germany and Nigeria.
b) The Personal Present of Work Related Issues
4) For most people "the work problem" is very personal.
a) Many will be concerned with having "a career", and how to plan for this.
b) They will be interested in the kind of training or education they need for a chosen career.
c) They will want to know how difficult it is to obtain work in their field, and what processes are involved in this.
d) Some will want to know how internationally mobile they can be over a working life with a certain kind of profession.
e) Once they obtain a job, they will want to know the prospects for advancement.
f) They will need to make a judgement about job security, the duration of their employment, and maybe plan for future changes.
g) The in-company culture will be important to them - working hours, flexibility, hierarchy, gender relations, holiday & sick leave, dress codes etc, the rewards & discouragements for initiative.
h) They will want to know if the employer has any interest in the work-life balance of employees, or approaches the relationship in a purely predatory manner.
c) The rules of engagement have changed
5) It is a cliché that generals always fight future wars by re-gaming the battles won and lost in past wars. If work is war by another name – and it often seems to be fought like that – then most combatants need to get their heads around some new realities. Maybe the equation of work with a mute collective statistic called “labour” in classical models of economics was always dubious. Today such assumptions lead to massive miscalculation. Why is a statistical number called ‘labour’ in the calculations of economic models so incoherent?
a) Most of the category labels in economic calculations no longer describe what their users assume them to describe. People still assume that the social patterns and ideologies we have inherited from the past two centuries are set in stone. There is “no other way” they feel. Yet real human organization has continued to change beyond recognition. The Internet and electronic communications have altered the very way we think. The production and consumption of goods and services flow across borders at ever increasing speeds. The meaning of money itself, how it is created and distributed, is only weakly related to the financial world of a century ago, though most people do not understand this.
b) Above all, the meaning of labour now is only sometimes related to the descriptions found in old textbooks, or the notions of labour which politicians and journalists make fiction stories about on a daily basis. A man making widgets with a lathe can perhaps have his output related to some financial equation of “productivity”. This is what the text books talk about. Yet how do you measure the productivity of knowledge workers? Seriously. Nobody knows (though some charlatans in suits will claim to). You have the entrepreneur whose ideas and drive create a vast business, or the gifted teacher who inspires students, or the musician whose music millions listen to. These people are not replaceable cogs. They represent the major capital of enterprises which wither or collapse when they depart. The rewards they earn vary wildly, from near starvation to the stratosphere, because there is no honest metric to measure their real contribution.
c) At an opposite pole to those with certain unique skills are huge numbers of perfectly capable workers whose transactional value to the owners of capital is vanishing either through automation, or through the simple expedient of exporting the jobs to low cost countries. The scale and speed of this transition is such that only some of these displaced individuals can find employment alternatives, even with retraining. Increasing numbers become unemployed, and are soon denigrated as a social “cost”.
6) Local unemployment rates and government support programs for the unemployed always engage popular interest, and influence voting patterns. However, most people react to such worries with little knowledge of or interest in the history of these issues. Their ideas about solutions therefore often have more to do with slogans than effective reasoning. The truth is that unemployment patterns can only be understood and managed through a long view of complex processes.
a) After the trauma of the Great Depression from 1929 and through the 1930s a whole generation worldwide developed powerful beliefs about the importance of secure employment. This sentiment was reflected strongly in the economic priorities of most electable governments up until the mid-1970s. Australia successfully maintained low unemployment for much of the post World War 2 period. Safety net social security programs for those who were unemployed became much more robust.
b) In the 1970s a problem arose in some economies where inflation was rising at the same time as unemployment (stagflation). This made fiscal control of an economy very difficult for governments since at that time they wanted neither inflation nor unemployment, yet the control of one made the other worse. A solution was found using one version of an economic model called “supply side economics” (Roberts 2014). However the technical solution later became corrupted for political purposes (Reagonomics, Thatcherism), with an ideology of cutting taxation to favour the rich, and using higher unemployment as a tool to keep wage demands low and workers passive. This political formula is still popular with some conservative governments (for example the current federal government in Australia, 2014).
c) The permanent loss of jobs which has been occurring in countries like the United States and Australia stems directly from a corruption of political values which accelerated from the 1970s. This understanding is becoming fairly widespread amongst the educated public (though it is probably not grasped widely enough to sway elections). For example, I don’t happen to agree with all of the views of Paul Craig Roberts, who was Assistant Secretary of the Treasury for Economic Policy during the Reagan presidency. However he describes the ongoing destruction of employment futures quite succinctly:
e) The role of managerialism in employment destruction
7) The destruction described by Roberts has actually been overseen by a new managerial elite, and no major changes in the nature and security of work will be possible until this elite is brought under control.
a) After World War II, the control of complex organizations was consciously transferred into the hands of a professional management class. This process drew originally on theories of the industrial psychologist, Elton Mayo (1880-1949), who believed that managerialism – managers manipulating people to fit the norms of an organization - was superior to democracy (Wikipedia 2014). The idea was given political shape firstly in the United States through the activities and beliefs of James Burnham (Sempa 2000).
b) Managerialism subsequently spread worldwide and is now the effective daily governing mechanism in the majority of countries (regardless of public ideology). Now that a managerial class more or less rules the world, the objectives of upper managers have largely turned to personal enrichment. That is, managerialism has evolved to become a mechanism for manipulating people for the private benefit of a managerial elite rather than the benefit of the public, the benefit of employees, the long term success of the organization, or even the best interests of shareholders. The net outcome is overwhelmingly that employment security is lost for most employees and real working conditions deteriorate. The net commercial outcome is usually that economic competition is diminished. (Managerialism in tertiary education institutions has been especially noxious, but that is a subject too extensive to explore here. See my doctoral dissertation, Language Tangle, on knowledge worker productivity: May 2010)
c) Of course, only a small minority of the occupational class called managers control large agendas of national significance. The flocks of middle managers populating every kind of enterprise are not entirely homogeneous in outlook either. Yet, like the mandarins of dynastic China, enough of them share a sufficiently common ethic and ambition to shape the boundaries of what is achievable in the organizations which they populate. This management class is broadly hierarchical, with claims to a generalized skill set in the organization of other people. In reality, and in common with the upper managerial elite already referred to, the agenda of these middle managers, behind a blizzard of mission statements and ‘plans’, is the perpetuation of their own managerial existence. Overwhelmingly any efficiencies they create have been directed to self-reward.
d) Attempts to rate the real effectiveness of managers strike significant difficulties since competent leadership is hard to quantify. Nevertheless recent attempts which have been made rate the number of genuinely competent managers at around 10% of the whole (Pereira 2012). The equations of most standard economic models cannot properly account for the contributions, rewards and costs of a large management class.
e) Perhaps because politics is the art of the possible, and the new management class is in the business of creating at least illusions of new possibility, the marriage of public politics and management has been a fruitful wealth creation vehicle for both politicians and management elites. For example, a favourite tool for the personal enrichment of managers is asset stripping public utilities by privatization in the name of “efficiency”. Since the 1990s this has accelerated from Moscow to Beijing, from Washington to Sydney. The politicians who facilitate such public theft typically find lucrative sinecures with the companies they have assisted. An emerging Australian example of the day is the privatization of Medibank Private whose CEO will get a huge income boost, and whose employees will inevitably diminish (Desloires 2104).
f) The role of globalization in employment destruction
8) Globalization can be seen as a development in international trading relationships, or as a consequence of the search for economies of scale and resource optimization in manufacture, or as a natural outcome of accelerating developments in technology, computerization and communications, or in a variety of other ways. However, as with all economic processes, the agents of globalization are human agents, and the human agents with the specialized interests which drove globalization have been the new managerial elites.
a) Some understanding of the history of industrialization is necessary at this point. It is useful to retrace the changing ideas of what “work” itself has meant before and after the industrial revolution beginning in the late 18th Century. Only then can we see the ways in which a managerial elite, post World War II drove globalization and set industry on a path of labour and capital arbitrage – a path which first popularized the notion of stable careers for large numbers of people, and then destroyed that prospect with a new paradigm of lifelong insecure employment, or even permanent unemployment, for a vast underclass which the sociologist, Guy Standing (2013) has termed the precariat, the precariously employed.
g) Pre-Industrial Historical Background
9) Our present idea of work had little meaning for most people before the Industrial Revolution (from the late 18th Century).
10) In earlier times there was a fairly small number of occupations.
a) These earlier occupations were usually hereditary.
b) Earlier occupations were tied to fixed social classes
c) Attempts by an individual to change occupations/classes were usually prevented and punished (even by death). Social mobility was an affront to God, the king and the social order.
d) The closest surviving equivalent to traditional occupations/classes might be the caste system of India.
e) Examples of early occupations were king, nobles, soldiers, farmers, fishermen, craftsmen, servants, slaves
f) Women were not usually members of most early occupational classes, except as partners and assistants to men.
g) Early occupational categories, being inherited, largely depended upon parents and elders for skilling new members.
h) Pre-industrial traditional occupations were automatically for life. "Unemployment" was not a very meaningful concept, although underemployment was common.
11) The first waves of industrialization both caused and was caused by massive urbanization. Millions moved from the country to new cities (McElroy 2012). This first stage of urban economic development can be called UED1.
a) The first stage of industrialization attempted to replace old occupational categories with new categories suitable for industry and commerce.
b) The creation of new occupational categories was not at first duplicated by the creation of new, more fluid social categories. This caused stress, conflict, and eventually revolutions.
c) Various ideologies emerged as attempts to justify new kinds of social ordering: raw capitalism, communism, socialism (a mix of features from the first two), political fascism, managerialism (since World War II) ... and so on. The clash of ideologies gave rise to over two centuries of violent wars.
d) New industrial and commercial occupations inducted members on the basis of skills, aptitude, education, personal connections and purchase (bribery). All of these channels are still found, together with professionalized recruitment channels.
e) The new occupations required non-traditional skills. They required literacy and numeracy. They often required years of non-workplace education. Thus a huge need for mass education arose.
f) Mass education imitated most of the organizational features of the factories and commercial enterprises it was serving. The psychological theories of learning as applied similarly had a mechanistic resemblance to factory production processes. Professional attempts to find more sophisticated ways to teach and to learn have continued to meet with resistance from the public, from industry and from governments.
g) In the early industrial age, newly urbanized workers had no employment security, working conditions were often unsafe and brutal, and people died young. This led to a strong reaction, and by the mid 20th Century, the idea of a "career" with long periods of continuous employment was the norm in advanced economies.
h) The owners of capital in the original industrial nations of UED1 had eventually been forced into a sort of social contract with workers. That is, industry and commerce, controlled by owners of capital, had needed skilled workers. They therefore had to invest in educating workers, and providing long term careers.
i) UED1 was accompanied by colonialism, a system by which industrialized nations occupied and forced third world populations to supply raw materials to the home factories of the colonizing state (Britain was a leader in this process).
12) The second stage of urban economic development (UED2) became important a little before the turn of the 21st Century.
a) UED2 at first was called a "post industrial age". It wasn't really that. Industry "globalized". First manufacturing industries were moved to the cheapest world labour locations, then more and more service industries.
b) Compliant labour was also imported under the guise of temporary or permanent migration to avoid training costs and other social obligations. Labour migration is a huge and complex phenomenon involving both push and pull factors. For immigrant workers it has offered new opportunities but led to exploitation on many levels. The International Labour Organization estimates that there are currently around 232 million migrant workers around the world (ILO 2014, Wikipedia 2014 “Migrant Worker”).
c) As whole industries began to disappear from the original industrial nations of UED1, careers also began to disappear. So-called service jobs began to dominate routine employment opportunities which remained. The role of technology in employment has always been ambiguous, both creating and destroying jobs (see Wikipedia: Technological Unemployment). The advent of the Internet, for example, has led to a great proliferation of new occupations, many involving small scale entrepreneurship, while other more traditional clerical occupations have vanished.
d) Automation and robots increasingly replaced surviving low-skill jobs in the original industrial nations, and then began to replace even relatively skilled jobs (The Economist 2014: see table left). Around 2005 in the United States a threshold was crossed where the number of non-routine jobs passed 50% of the total, with routine jobs trending rapidly towards zero (Boyd 2014). It has sometimes been difficult to evaluate where job losses were linked to automation, or simply off-shored to cheaper labour locations:
“…it is undeniable that something strange is happening in the U.S. labor market. Since the end of the Great Recession, job creation has not kept up with population growth. Corporate profits have doubled since 2000, yet median household income (adjusted for inflation) dropped from $55,986 to $51,017. At the same time, after-tax corporate profits as a share of gross domestic product increased from around 5 to 11 percent, while compensation of employees as a share of GDP dropped from around 47 to 43 percent. Somehow businesses are making more profit with fewer workers”. (Scientific American, July 2014)
e) The owners of capital in UED2 began to question the social contract which had led to their investment in education, training and long term employment for workers in UED1. That is, capital was deployed in a world market with many companies no longer committed to the people of one nation.
f) Contributions of company taxation to national treasuries diminished drastically and continuously from the 1950s (Ritholtz 2011).
g) The owners of capital in UED2 invested heavily in the political manipulation of governments through lobbying and financial inducements.
i) It was particularly important to them to encourage international trade agreements to maximize the free cross-border flow of capital for maximum company profit (Dorling 2014, Garnaut 2014). The more easily such transfers could occur, the less they were dependent upon labour in any one country, and the more free they were to minimize taxation contributions to host societies.
ii) A high proportion of the profits siphoned from host societies were warehoused in offshore tax havens. These warehoused funds were estimated to amount to up to $32 trillion dollars (British Parliamentary Tax Justice Network: TJN 2013), dwarfing the size of most economies and ceasing to benefit populations anywhere, or even their “owners” in any useful way. Neither the companies, nor supportive politicians seemed ready to comprehend this process as a form of treason.
j) The Precariat and the Security State
13) And now we have the “precariat” – billions of people for whom the idea of lifetime employment has become a mirage, if it ever existed. When they work at all, it is part-time, or on short term contracts, or in intermittent jobs, and so on. In polite company they often describe themselves as "self-employed".
a) There is no single uniting quality to these people, except their insecurity. Some have PhDs, some cannot read or write functionally. Some have great energy, some are lazy. Some are enterprising but unlucky. Many would be perfectly good workers if told what to do in a secure job, as their fathers and mothers did.
b) These billions are found in every continent and country, from rich countries to poor. Yet through no fault of their own, most of these people will never secure long term employment. Only a minority are needed as factory and office fodder. They will never be able to obtain the mortgage for a house, or plan for their retirement on a pension, or save for their children’s education or expect regular paid holidays. They are the marginal people. The grand social contract has passed them by. The story of belonging to a shared and fair community has passed them by. Fine words about democracy and all the rest ring hollow in their ears. They are the precariat with little to lose.
14) The ruling elites of early 19th Century Europe, its colonies and America were terrified of the new working classes, and initially tried to cower them with draconian law enforcement. The convict settlement of Australia was a consequence of this reaction. Gradually recalcitrant workers were bought off with social welfare programs (Chancellor Otto von Bismarck in Germany first hit on this). Now the ruling elites of the 21st Century are terrified of the Precariat.
a) The elites know insecure people are dangerous; they know that precariat numbers are overwhelming. Yet the elites, the academy, and the commentariat have no theory, no language, no model to handle the Precariat.
b) As a temporary distraction while they work out what to do, the ruling elites, and their town criers in the media, have called up a storyline about a permanent war on terrorism and created the Security State (Grubb 2014). This is just blowing smoke in our eyes, and their own. They don’t know what the next step is.
c) With their minds deadened by an uncritical education, few even understand that the old categories of raw materials, capital, labour etc. play only one limited part in our complex present world (Stiglitz 2014). Common language disguises the realities in plain sight. In fact, what we have are Insecurity States and a swirling Precariat. We await a prophet to make it all clear, and explain a way forward.
k) Future consequences of UED2
15) The employment landscape post-UED2 will be a very different one from that which our parents knew.
a) On present indications (see the notes above) in the future only a minority of people will have secure, long term employment throughout their working lives.
b) A majority will have rather insecure employment for varying lengths of time.
c) Large numbers will have to retrain several times, many into totally different occupations.
d) In the least able section of the population, which is more or less unskilled, huge numbers of individuals will spend years unemployed because the kind of work they can do will simply not exist in sufficient quantity.
16) The consequences of the employment scenario outlined in 14) go to the core of our civilization.
a) What will be the psychological consequences on people of lifelong employment insecurity or unemployment?
b) How are the overall values of the society likely to change to fit this new reality? For example, will new forms of class discrimination emerge?
c) What will be the long-term political consequences of majority long term employment insecurity?
d) How will financial institutions adapt to a flaky credit situation where the majority of the population have a problem with long term debt like mortgages?
e) Will employment insecurity have major implications for family planning and population growth?
f) When structural unemployment affects a major part of the population, and even well educated people struggle to earn consistently over a lifetime, how will governments fund the huge and unavoidable social welfare & pension bills?
g) When commerce and industry contribute an ever-diminishing proportion of taxation, why is the lobbying influence of this sector on government continuously increasing, and the influence of the electorate decreasing? What can be done about it?
l) A Brief reflection on human resilience and finding a meaning in work
17) The universe of occupations and interests we swim in now would have been beyond the conception of anyone for most of the last 6000 years of recorded history, let alone the two million odd years since the recognizable emergence of our species.
a) The human genius has been continual adaptation. Our adaptation to this point has been successful in the sense of species survival, and stupendous in the sense of technological innovation. Socially we have been less creative, though not without change.
b) It may be that the disjunction between an explosive growth in technical capacity and still primitive social tendencies will cause our extinction.
c) In the meantime, like a long tail of mostly disbanded evolutionary DNA, ancient personal solutions continue to sustain some individuals and groups in ways that no one has yet reduced to a theory of economics or a mathematical model. Often these solutions have more to do with faith than reason.
d) For example, in matters of human health, traditional solutions may even invoke miracles (Elliot 2014), and yet (like so much in medical practice) they apparently work for some regardless of not understanding “why”. After all, it is the body’s own immune system which promotes healing, and activating that in whatever way – by technology or chemistry or faith – is what preserves the organism.
e) The lesson from our “irrational” ability to survive is that the punitive exclusion of unapproved alternative solutions by medical priesthoods, or by other professional monopolies, eventually precludes discovery and innovation. This is comparable to a reduction in biodiversity strangling the scope for new discovery.
f) Our continued existence depends upon keeping a balance that is also open to change. The reduction of social experiment by the straightjacket of a rigid ideology, or an uncritical economic model, or inflexible customs of work and consumption, or sheer laziness perpetuating all of the above, would eventually strangle the capacity of humans to find new meanings for work and for living.
m) False Solutions
18) Very often the most perilous solution to complex human issues is to insist on “a solution”, one solution. Each new emperor (read politician) claims to have the solution to the problems of the day, and occasionally like China’s infamous fascist emperor Qin Shi Huangdi (秦始皇 221 BC) buries the old scholars alive and burns the books.
a) In a similar way, historically each religion has claimed a monopoly on the way, the truth and the light, and when secure in the favour of some Caesar, has incinerated any challengers on bonfires, put them to the sword or cursed them for eternity in some very hot supernatural hell.
b) The Marxist-Communist ideologues of the 20th Century, in common with the Nazis of Germany’s 3rd Reich, likewise reigned by terror and sent skeptical souls to rot in gulags, or worse. As alert and educated people from many cultures are now aware, fundamentalist Capitalists are still provoking wars in the name of free enterprise, plundering the lives of whole generations of ordinary people with banking piracy, and deploying coercive “diplomacy” to suppress any signs of challenge to their “neo-liberal” grand solution.
19) With all these cautionary tales in mind, the last thing we should hope for is an ideological solution to the vast challenge posed by the Precariat.
a) We can look for patterns, and sometimes by asking non-conventional questions we may find hints of causes and paths to explore.
b) Many of the best answers will be local to particular conditions, or special to unique sub-groups of people.
c) We might cautiously conceive of a class of social, economic and technological problems which have salience for the Precariat as a whole Some thoughtful people may even make a career from analyzing these issues on a broad scale.
d) What we must resist from the outset though is the latest ambitious politician, having discovered this new word Precariat, turning up on Monday morning with a single, deadly solution and a new ideology.
Reading list & References (note that the writers in these links are expressing their own views. I don't necessarily share them).
Adonis, James (September 26, 2014) "Work is making you numb". Brisbane Times online @ http://www.brisbanetimes.com.au/small-business/managing/blogs/work-in-progress/work-is-making-you-numb-20140926-3gncg.html#ixzz3EPrywaBh
Adonis, James (2013) “I’m bored witless – plight of the overqualified”. Brisbane Times, online @ http://www.brisbanetimes.com.au/small-business/blogs/work-in-progress/i-am-bored-witless-20130531-2nfbe.html#ixzz2V1GnCzqa
Alia (September 3rd, 2013) "Is a college degree worthless in today’s China?" Offbeat China blog, online @ http://offbeatchina.com/is-a-college-degree-worthless-in-todays-china
Associated Press (December 1, 2013) "London mayor Boris Johnson claims poor have low IQs and greed is good". Sydney Morning Herald online @ http://www.smh.com.au/world/london-mayor-boris-johnson-claims-poor-have-low-iqs-and-greed-is-good-20131130-2yio2.html#ixzz2mAfzl5jP
Badham, Van(February 7, 2016) "Insecure work, loss of entitlements, underpayment – it's all in a day's work". The Guardian online @ http://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/commentisfree/2016/feb/07/insecure-work-loss-of-entitlements-underpayment-its-all-in-a-days-work
Bourke, Latika (October 7, 2014) "Abbott government abandons plan to make job seekers apply for 40 jobs a month". Sydney Morning Herald, online @ http://www.smh.com.au/federal-politics/political-news/abbott-government-abandons-plan-to-make-job-seekers-apply-for-40-jobs-a-month-20141007-10r46j.html#ixzz3FPWJxcgn
Boyd, Stowe (09/04/2014) "When Robots Take Over Most Jobs, What Will Be the Purpose of Humans?". Huffington Post online @ http://www.huffingtonpost.com/stowe-boyd/robots-jobs-purpose-humans_b_5689813.html?utm_hp_ref=world
Carter, Zach & Ryan Grim (10/14/2014) "Bill Gates Thinks Thomas Piketty's Attack On Inequality Is Right". Huffington Post online @ http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/10/14/bill-gates-thomas-piketty_n_5985800.html?utm_hp_ref=world&ir=World
Chang, Ha-Joon (2014) "Economics: The User's Guide". Bloomsbury Press. Also available in eBook format at http://www.amazon.com/Economics-Users-Guide-Pelican-Introduction/dp/0718197038/ref=pd_cp_b_0
Chomsky, Noam (5 August 2012) " Plutonomy and the Precariat". Huffington Post, online @ http://www.huffingtonpost.com/noam-chomsky/plutonomy-and-the-precari_b_1499246.html
Courtenay, Adam (July 16, 2014a) "Getting a job after 50". Brisbane Times online @ http://www.brisbanetimes.com.au/small-business/growing/getting-a-job-after-50-20140411-36h6a.html#ixzz37aJcZwH0
Courtenay, Adam (October 1, 2014b) "Help for older women who need jobs". Brisbane Times online @ http://www.brisbanetimes.com.au/small-business/trends/help-for-older-women-who-need-jobs-20140912-10fn1f.html
Desloires, Vanessa (October 3, 2014) "The 400 per cent pay rise: Medibank chief George Savvides to cash in on privatization”. Brisbane Times online @ http://www.brisbanetimes.com.au/business/the-400-per-cent-pay-rise-medibank-chief-george-savvides-to-cash-in-on-privatisation-20141003-10pms4.html
Dorling, Philip (June 20, 2014) "Secret trade negotiations: is this the end of the big four?". Sydney Morning Herald online @ http://www.smh.com.au/federal-politics/political-news/secret-trade-negotiations-is-this-the-end-of-the-big-four-20140619-3ah39.html#ixzz357qSpRw9
Dunn, Claire (July 7, 2014) "How to spot a fake job ad". Brisbane Times online @ http://www.brisbanetimes.com.au/small-business/trends/how-to-spot-a-fake-job-ad-20140501-37jk2.html#ixzz371Tw1us2
Elliott, Tim (October 4, 2014) "John of God: Miracle worker or charlatan?". Brisbane Times online @ http://www.brisbanetimes.com.au/good-weekend/john-of-god-miracle-worker-or-charlatan-20141003-10jl7q.html
Featherstone, Tony ( April 10, 2014) "How many job ads are fake?". Brisbane Times online @ http://www.brisbanetimes.com.au/small-business/managing/blogs/the-venture/how-many-job-ads-are-fake-20140409-36crh.html#ixzz2yTO5RlhC
Garnaut, John (October 3, 2014) "Prime Minister Tony Abbott will drop free trade agreement with China unless Australia gets same concessions as New Zealand". Brisbane Times online @ http://www.brisbanetimes.com.au/business/prime-minister-tony-abbott-will-drop-free-trade-agreement-with-china-unless-australia-gets-same-concessions-as-new-zealand-20141002-10pbpz.html
Gigerenzer, Gerd (2014) Risk Savvy: How to Make Good Decisions Hardcover. [highly recommended] pub. Viking Adult. Available online (including ebook format) @ http://www.amazon.com/Risk-Savvy-Make-Good-Decisions/dp/0670025658
Govan , Fiona (2013) “Three degrees, yet I clean a lavatory – the tale of Spain’s lost generation”. Sydney Morning Herald, online @ http://www.smh.com.au/world/three-degrees-yet-i-clean-a-lavatory-the-tale-of-spains-lost-generation-20131002-2urqo.html#ixzz2gYTR4fb3
Guy Standing ( n.d. ) The Precariat Facebook page. Facebook, online @ https://www.facebook.com/ThePrecariat [explanation: the sociologist, Guy Standing has defined what he calls a new social class, the Precariat. The rest of us call these people the insecurely employed. They now form a large part and increasing of the workforce in most countries, even amongst the highly educated. Standing has recognized that governments ignore this group of people, a socially perilous oversight. He has been giving lectures worldwide for several years on the subject]
Guy Standing (19 April 2013) "Defining the precariat". Eurozine, online @ http://www.eurozine.com/articles/2013-04-19-standing-en.html
Guy Standing (2011) “The Precariat and Basic Income”. online @ http://www.guystanding.com/files/documents/forum_poverta_napoli_-_guy_standing.pdf || also The Precariat – the new dangerous class. (book) Bloomsbury Academic, online @ http://www.bloomsburyacademic.com/view/The-Precariat/book-ba-9781849664554.xml
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Guy Standing (24 May 2011) "The Precariat – The new dangerous class". Policy Network website, online @ http://www.policy-network.net/pno_detail.aspx?ID=4004&title=+The+Precariat+%E2%80%93+The+new+dangerous+class
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Source of this essay
Professional bio: Thor May has a core professional interest in cognitive linguistics, at which he has rarely succeeded in making a living. He has also, perhaps fatally in a career sense, cultivated an interest in how things work – people, brains, systems, countries, machines, whatever… In the world of daily employment he has mostly taught English as a foreign language, a stimulating activity though rarely regarded as a profession by the world at large. His PhD dissertation, Language Tangle, dealt with language teaching productivity. Thor has been teaching English to non-native speakers, training teachers and lecturing linguistics, since 1976. This work has taken him to seven countries in Oceania and East Asia, mostly with tertiary students, but with a couple of detours to teach secondary students and young children. He has trained teachers in Australia, Fiji and South Korea. In an earlier life, prior to becoming a teacher, he had a decade of finding his way out of working class origins, through unskilled jobs in Australia, New Zealand and finally England (after backpacking across Asia in 1972).
contact: http://thormay.net email@example.com
academic repository: Academia.edu at http://independent.academia.edu/ThorMay
discussion: Thor's Unwise Ideas at http://thormay.net/unwiseideas/unwisendx.html
The Problem of Work and the Rise of the Precariat (c) Thor May 2014