The weekly quiz questions
below are a rough guide to the course, and a fair indication of what
students should study for the final exam. Test yourself !
1 15 June 2004
are two knowledge skills needed by an "educated person"
in a complex profession?
2. Why is it no
longer enough for a professional to just memorize a lot of information?
3. The field of
SLA has greatly expanded recently. What is one negative effect of
this on the quality of published research?
4. What is one
lesson we can learn from 1500 years of mistaken belief in the Ptolemaic
5. Direct experience
is one source of knowledge. However, most people get most of their
knowlege and beliefs from _________________ ?
6. Large socio-political
units like empires are often maintained by repressive force. However,
they are also often the 'nurseries' for new knowledge and ideas. Explain
7. The development
of 'scientific method' in Europe was a reaction against ______________
8. Give an example
of an hypothesis statement.
9. Give an example
of a null hypothesis statement.
10. Explain the
problems with a survey question which asks "Do you believe South
Korea is a free country?".
11. Give an example
of a survey question with ambiguous underlying assumptions.
What is a variable?
13. What is a
14. In the social
sciences, it is not possible to neutralize all contaminating variables.
What is the compromise solution when stating results?
does scientific method require a precise record of all procedures
used by the researcher?
16. What does
a researcher need to know in order to replicate someone elses experiment?
17. Give a modern
example of some research which was corrupted. (Explain in full sentences
18. What have
been two different focuses in SLA research?
19. What is the
general aim of doing action research for teachers?
20. What is the
21. How can the
Hawthorne Effect actually be an advantage in classroom action research?
22. How can action
research help to overcome teacher burnout?
23. What happens
if a researcher is convinced of a result before he/she begins the
24. Explain why
a failed hypothesis and a confirmed hypothesis are both useful outcomes.
25. Why is it
always necessary to explain the criteria for accepting and rejecting
26. Is it possible
to scientifically investigate a question which is not falsifiable?
2 30 June 2004
1. Name two important
parts of brain cells.
2. What are two
'media' which may store memories in the human brain?
3. How many bits
of information can we hold in short term memory?
4. What is an ancient
philosophy which developed complex ideas about the concept of 'self'
or 'I' ?
5. Describe a metaphor
for the brain which explains the difference between conscious attention
and and subconscious thought.
6. Describe a metaphor
for the brain using the idea of cognitive agents.
7. Describe the
complex problem which most occupies the minds of children younger than
5 years old.
8. Discuss the importance
of the 'language agent' for human minds.
9. What are four
translations which occur in the transfer of a message from one mind
to another mind?
10. What can happen
to a message pattern as it passes through the air?
11. What are two
steps in message transfer within the human ear?
12. What effect
can transmission media have on a message pattern?
13. How does a receiving
mind decode a damaged message pattern?
14. Define the idea
of 'a system'.
15. Why does a TESOL
teacher need to be aware of the processes of language production?
16. What is a common
delusion which teachers, other professionals, and even the members of
a nation often have about themselves?
17. Explain the
main proposition in Chomsky's model of Universal Grammar.
18. Expain how the
metaphor of a switchboard can be used to talk about Universal Grammar.
19. Explain how
the PRO-drop rule is supposed to support the idea of a Universal Grammar.
20. Give an argument
to show that a Universal Grammar of some kind seems to be necessary.
21. What is the
main proposition in McWhinney's Competition Model?
22. Give an argument
against the Competition Model.
23. Give an argument
supporting the Competition Model.
24. What are two
common assumptions which Cook suggests are often found in language teaching?
25. Most modern
Lx teaching method prefer the use of ______________ rather than isolated
theory claimed that there was a 'natural order' for learning the four
basic language skills. What was that order?
27. What are two
possible sources of authentic Lx input for L2 students?
28. What is a practical
difference between memory in L2 and memory in L1?
29. Explain the
difference between an L2 Learner and an L2 User.
30. Why do L2 learners
produce L2 mistakes systematically, not randomly?
3 13 July 2004
1. Why did Skinner's
behaviourist method of research avoid any study of mental processes?
2. Why is it a mistake
to call any research method which studies mental processes "behaviourist"?
3. Explain the difference
between Anderson's 'declarative memory' and his 'procedural memory'.
4. Declarative memory
is about consciously 'declaring' each step in a process. It is slow
and unreliable. However, procedural memory is about ___________ . It
5. What does Buddhist
philosophy mean by 'a hierarchy of habits'?
sees learning as _________________________
7. Explain how connectionism
uses the concept of neural pathways.
8. Describe some
properties of linear processing.
9. Describe some
properties of parallel processing.
10. What is an advantage
that parallel processing has over linear processing for human languages?
11. Give an example
of listener prediction in decoding a message.
12. Why is a listener
never quite certain of a speaker's original message?
13. How might a
language teacher help students to develop skills of prediction in L2?
14. Explain two
ways the concepts of 'whole' and 'parts' have been used in teaching.
15. Explain what
the concepts of 'whole' and 'parts' have to do with human learning.
16. Briefly describe
Ausubel's theory of memory.
17. How does our
memory economize instead of remembering thousands of detailed events?
18. Explain the
idea of systematic forgetting.
19. How might a
child develop a concept for the word 'hot'?
20. What is the
difference between developing a long term memory of a single event,
and long term memories of a complex system like language?
21. Explain the
role of 'peaks of experience/emotion' in complex learning.
22. Explain Krashen's
23. Explain Krashen's
affective block hypothesis.
24. Explain Krashen's
25. Explain Krashen's
natural order hypothesis.
26. Explain Krashen's
27. What are two
things which might weaken the affective block for acquisition?
28. What are two
things which might strengthen the affective block for acquisition?
29. Suggest a criticism
which could be made of Krashen's model.
4 27 July 2004
input may be necessary for language acquisition, but not sufficient.
What other input quality may be needed for acquisition to take place
2. Gardiner's Socio-educational
model (1985) said that motivation was influence by two kinds of social
factors. What were those two kinds of social factors?
3. What outcome
did Gardiner predict for language acquisition where there is a conflict
between a) the local atitude to L2 learning (in the learner's environment)
and b) the wider community attitude to L2 learning and use ?
4. Cook talks about
a "multi-competence model" for L2 acquisition. What is his
5. What level of
L2 competence would it be realistic for most adult learners of English
in Korea to aim for?
6. Give an example
of how becoming fluent in English might influence a Korean' s use of
his or her mother tongue.
7. SLA researchers
have traditionally claimed the acquisition of native-like pronunciation
in L2 is impossible for most speakers after puberty. Give an example
of a current commercial situation which seems to contradict this claim.
8. Name four components
of non-segmental phonology.
9. Explain the difference
between syllable-timed languages and stress-timed languages.
10. Define 'stress'
as it is used in phonology.
11. Describe the
steps needed to set up a shadow talking program for yourself in order
to master English intonation and rhythm.
12. Why is shadow
talking superior to fragmented examples for mastering supra-segmental
13. Classroom teachers
worldwide tend to teach segmental and non-segmental phonology badly.
However, there are people who have taught these skills to individuals
for centuries. Who are these 'hidden professionals'?
14. What is a practical
problem with teaching minimal pair phoneme distinctions to students
in the classroom ?
15. Why are tape
recorders rather poor tools for teaching supra-segmental phonology in
16. Why is it mostly
impractical to teach supra-segmental phonology in an analytic way in
17. What are two
productive ways to teach supra-segmental phonology?
18. Explain the
idea of Voice Onset Time, and how it varies across languages.
19. Discuss the
advantages of various kinds of classroom drama practice in developing
L2 speaking skills.
20. What have been
two extremes in vocabulary learning methods ?
21. What is a problem
with simply learning lists of words in L2?
22. What is a word?
23. How is a lexicalized
phrase different from a word on the one hand, yet also different from
a constructed sentence on the other hand.
24. Explain what
you understand about Eleanor Roche's Prototype Theory for words.
25. How does life
experience (e.g. social class) affect L1 acquisition for infants after
about three years of age?
26. Discuss how
the early language learning experience of a typical child in old Chosun
society might have differed from the early language learning experience
of a South Korean child today.
27. What has the
study of brain-damaged individuals taught us about how words are stored
in the human brain?
28. When an L2 learner
says that she 'knows' a word of English, how might her knowledge of
that word differ from a native English speaker's knowledge of the same
29. Why do frequency
lists of words become less and less useful guides as a learner acquires
more of L2?
30. Describe a common
problem with the choice of words to learn in standardized tests like
TOEIC and TOEFL.
31. What is a frequent
problem in translating closed sets of words (e.g. prepositions or colour
words) between languages?
Quiz 5, 3 August 2004
1. What are (at
least) four different kinds of information that our brains must store
about any word?
seem to be a good way to learn about the collocations of a word, but
they might not be easy to use as a teaching tool. Why?
3. Why are there
probably more lexicalized phrases in spoken language than in written
4. What is a processing
advantage of using lexicalized phrases in speech?
5. Suggest a social
advantage in having very predictable phrases for common tasks like greetings,
compliments, insults, excuses, .. and so on.
6. What is a problem
of just learning lists of words without a context?
7. Parry (1991)
found an unexpected learning result with people who were good at guessing
meanings from context. What was this result?
8. Explain why coming
to really "know" a word is a slow process.
9. How do L1 speakers
and L2 speakers usually differ in their knowledge of the same word?
10. How does the
storage and recall of smells and tastes usually differ from the storage
and recall of sights and sounds in humans?
11. What two kinds
of input are found in the creation of all memories?
12. Give an example
of how preconception or prejudice can lead to the creation of a false
13. Explain how
revision soon after learning can assist long term memory.
14. Why is it NOT
a good idea to miss sleep and study all night before an exam?
15. What part does
the hippocampus play in memory formation?
16. What are (at
least) two factors which can upset memory recall?
17 What are three
factors which can contribute to an effective memory?
18. What is an effect
of rehearsing the memories of bad experiences?
19. Recall involves
memory reconstruction. Why is the outcome always different from what
caused the memory to be first made?
20. What kind of
emotion can inhibit memory recall?
21. What is an effect
of cortison on memory recall?
22. Draw a matrix
of memory functions and memory modes to show where the weak or strong
points of memory can occur.
23. Teachers can't
do much about the inherited memory abilities of their students, but
they can influence some other factors. Discuss how teachers CAN help
the memory abilities and skills of students.
24. Explain how
(at least) one chemical has an effect on memory.
25. What do we mean
by 'memory mode dominance'?
26. Give an example
of multi-sensory input to assist memory formation.
27. Discuss and
give and example of the use of one mnemonic technique.
28. What part does
short term memory play in understanding speech?
29. What is meant
by the 'articulatory loop'?
30. Explain how
dictation can have some effect on the development of L2 memory.